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Case Study Presentation Guidelines
30% of your total grade
Clinical Microbiology Case Discussion

In our effort to introduce you to Critical Thinking and microbial diagnosis of diseases you will be exposed to relevant information of several clinical case scenarios. You are responsible for one case from the list attached on BlackBoard (Program Resources). The case presentation represents 30 % of your final grade.

Background: Case presentation exercises (CPs) were created to increase course relevance for nursing/allied health science students taking Microbiology.

Methods: Each student will select one case from the list provided and has 3- weeks to review, learn the terminology, complement patient history, physical exam data, and laboratory data pertaining to the case. The student will prepare a PowerPoint or similar presentation of the case to the extent of the information provided. The etiological agent elucidated and current knowledge about the microbe, including statistics and related information. e.g. commonly associated microorganisms, host conditions, etc. Sample processing, up-to-date laboratory procedures, results, and explanation.

Grading: The student will be evaluated on 5 aspects of the content of the presentation topic, based on: Creativity Quality of the information presented – Coherence and Organization Knowledge of the subject. The complementation of each case with additional current information and documentation will be taken into consideration for the grade.

Use your case study to find the microorganism causing the disease. Then, do research about the disease and draft a report and prepare a presentation.

What to include in the report:
Topic Overview (brief paragraph on the disease-infection) references!
Case Description
How did you diagnose the patient?
Answer the questions included in your case study (If any)
Name of disease
Clinical Diagnosis
Signs and symptoms
Laboratory Diagnosis
Laboratory results and other studies when requested.
Differential Diagnosis
Causative agent characteristics
Transmission
Treatment
Epidemiological statistics (CDC.gov)
Pictures, photosetc
References (minimum: 5). If you cite a webpage also provide the original scientific paper(s) as the information source.

Terms and definitions Topic Overview
It should give the reader in few words about your idea and what to expect. You
will clarify key terms and actors, identify the problem, outline existing measures, and formulate your own solutions to the question. Include only relevant information you can prove: Make sure you use valid sources before you add things you think you know always double-check, and do not write empty phrases.

Clinical case description

In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports may contain a demographic profile of the patient but usually describe an unusual or novel occurrence. Some case reports also contain a literature review of other reported cases. Case reports are professional narratives that provide feedback on clinical practice guidelines and offer a framework for early signals of effectiveness, adverse events, and cost. They can be shared for medical, scientific, or educational purposes.

Patient diagnosis
Arriving at a diagnosis of a patient is often complex, involving multiple steps:

taking an appropriate history of symptoms and collecting relevant data
physical examination
generating a provisional and differential diagnosis
testing (ordering, reviewing, and acting on test results)
reaching a final diagnosis
consultation (referral to seek clarification if indicated)
providing discharge instructions, monitoring, and follow-up
documenting these steps and the rationale for decisions made

Naming the Disease

Diseases are often given common names by people outside of the scientific community. Once disease names are established in common usage through the Internet and social media, they are difficult to change, even if an inappropriate name is being used. Therefore, it is important that whoever first reports on a newly identified human disease uses an appropriate name that is scientifically sound and socially acceptable.

The best practices apply to new infections, syndromes, and diseases that have never been recognized or reported before in humans, which have a potential public health impact, and for which there is no disease name in common usage. They do not apply to disease names that are already established.

Clinical Diagnosis
The process of identifying a disease, condition, or injury based on the signs and symptoms a patient is having and the patients health history and physical exam. Further testing, such as blood tests, imaging tests, and biopsies, may be done after a clinical diagnosis is made.
Signs and Symptoms
Signs and symptoms are abnormalities that can indicate a potential medical condition. Whereas a symptom is subjective, that is, apparent only to the patient (for example back pain or fatigue), a sign is any objective evidence of a disease that can be observed by others (for example a skin rash or lump).

Laboratory Diagnosis

A medical procedure involves testing a sample of blood, urine, or other substance from the body. Laboratory tests can help determine a diagnosis, plan treatment, check to see if treatment is working, or monitor the disease over time.

Differential Diagnosis

A differential diagnosis is a list of possible conditions or diseases that could be causing your symptoms. Its based on the facts obtained from your symptoms, medical history, basic laboratory results, and a physical examination. After developing a differential diagnosis, your doctor may then perform additional tests to begin to rule out specific conditions or diseases and come to a final diagnosis.

Causative (etiological) agent

Etiologic agents are those microorganisms and microbial toxins that cause disease in humans and include bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, fungi, rickettsia, protozoans, and parasites. These disease-causing microorganisms may also be referred to as infectious agents. Arthropods and other organisms transmitting pathogens to animals (including humans) are called vectors.

Transmission

The process of infection can be broken down into stages, each of which can be blocked by different defense mechanisms. In the first stage, a new host is exposed to infectious particles shed by an infected individual. The number, route, mode of transmission, and stability of an infectious agent outside the host determine its infectivity. Some pathogens, such as anthrax, are spread by spores that are highly resistant to heat and drying, while others, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are spread only by the exchange of bodily fluids or tissues because they are unable to survive as infectious agents outside the body.

Treatment

Drugs that treat infections in humans include antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antiparasitic medications.
Infections in humans are caused by microorganisms (microbes) and include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. There are more than a trillion species of microbes, but only a small number cause infection in humans. These are called pathogens.

Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study of how often diseases occur in different groups of people and why. Epidemiological information is used to plan and evaluate strategies to prevent illness and as a guide to the management of patients in whom the disease has already developed.